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THE ORDER OF PREPARATION FOR THE MRI OF THE ORGANS OF SMALL PELVIS IN THE X-RAY DEPARTMENT

  Preparation: In the morning of the examination day – enema, for 2 -3 hours before the examination, start gradually with individual sips to drink water (still water, possible with sugar or another sort of drink)  up to the indicated examination time with a total volume of up to 1 - 1.5 liters, at the time of the examination, have a slightly filled bladder.

  You should have:

  • Referral
  • Data about the disease (protocols and disks with records of previous MRI, CT, ultrasound examinations, epicrisis, other significant medical documentation)
  • CD-R disk
  • Sheet
  • Clear pocket
  • 0,5 liters of clean still water

THE ORDER OF EXAMINATION OF PATIENTS IN ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSTIC DEPARTMENT AND  PREPARATION FOR THE EXAMINATIONS

Ultrasound of the abdominal organs, elastometry of the liver and spleen:

  • You should have referral, sheet (towel)
  • Empty stomach (hunger not less than 6-8 hours)
  • Exclude laxatives
  • With severe flatulence (swelling) of the intestine within 3 days, limit from the diet: black bread, milk, peas, beans, cabbage, fresh vegetables, fruits, carbonated drinks and sweet dishes
  • To reduce gassing, the recommendation - intake of enzyme preparations (Mezim, Festal, Pancreatin) by 1 tab. 3 times a day. Recovered carbon is not used to prepare for ultrasound examination.

  Ultrasound of the pelvic organs (transabdominal), bladder, prostate (transabdominal):

  • You should have referral, sheet (towel)
  • The examination is carried out on a full bladder. You must drink up to 1 liter of liquid (still, juice, tea) 1 hour before the examination or do not urinate for more than 1.5 hours
  • Ultrasound for women is performed 2-7 days after the end of menstruation

When performed a transvaginal examination, the bladder should be empty.

  • For carrying out ultrasound examination of pelvic organs, women should have 2 condoms for ultrasound diagnostics.
  Prostate examination (transrectal):
  • You should have referral, sheet (towel), 2 condoms for ultrasound diagnosis
  • Transrectal examination of the prostate gland requires a cleansing enema the night before and the morning of the day of the examination

Contraindications to transrectal ultrasound:

  • presence of deep anal rectum fissure
  • presence of inflamed hemorrhoids

Ultrasound examinations of the thyroid gland, mammary glands, scrotum organs, soft tissues, salivary glands, joints, peripheral nerves are carried out without preliminary preparation.

 THE ORDER OF THE PATIENT EXAMINATION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FUNCTIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

  Patients for performing ultrasound and functional examination should have:

  • a referral from a polyclinic at the place of residence or from an expert at the Center and a talon,
  • data from previous examinations.

  For transesophageal echocardiography:

  • direction indicating the diagnosis, the purpose of the examinations; concomitant diseases;
  • transthoracic echocardiography;
  • protocol of the fiberoptic gastroduodenoscopy;
  • electrocardiogram.

If necessary, without referral patients can apply for paid ultrasound and functional research methods.

The registration for paid services is conducted in the registry.

 THE ORDER OF THE PATIENT EXAMINATION IN THE X-RAY DEPARTMENT

Preparation of patients for examination of the gastrointestinal tract with contrast agents:

 Irrigoscopy (X-ray examination of the colon)

Aim:

Cleansing the colon from feces, fluids and mucus is the main task of preparing for the procedure, the solution of which ensures the success of the examination.

 Patient preparation: 

Diet:

2 days before the examination (with constipation for 3 days), a diet without plant-based fiber (slag-free) is prescribed: you can eat and drink - tea, sugar, honey, clarified juice, broth, meat, boiled fish, eggs, dairy products; you can not - bread, cereals, vegetables, fruits, nuts, mushrooms. It is forbidden to eat at lunch and dinner on the eve of the examination, as well as breakfast on the day of the examination. On the morning of the examination, the patient can drink sweet tea (with sugar or honey) or a clear broth. For patients with diabetes, breakfast is allowed with products without vegetable fiber (egg, kefir).

 Cleaning of the intestine:

  • By FORTRANS or its analogues.

Preliminarily 3 bags of the drug dissolve in 3 liters of boiled water (for constipation 4 packets of 4 liters). On the eve (for 1 day before the study, from 15-16 hours) you need to drink 3 (or 4) liters of the prepared solution. The drug solution should be drunk for 3-4 hours (1 glass of 250 ml every 15-20 minutes). The laxative effect begins after 1.5-2 hours and lasts 5-6 hours.

In cases where preparation with FORTRANS  is difficult, it is necessary to inform the nurse or contact your doctor.

  • Option with the setting of cleansing enemas (1 day before the examination (on the eve) at 14 o'clock).

a) the patient does not have dinner;

b) takes a laxative (chosen by a doctor);

c) in 18.00 and 20.00 - two cleansing enemas with 1.5 liters of water at room temperature (it is necessary to administer the fluid, avoiding pain in the patient if possible).

On the day of the examination:

         In the morning, put 2 cleansing enemas with a volume of 1.5 liters each. To put a cleansing enema with cool or cold water is not recommended because of stimulation of gas formation in the intestine. After the last enema, the wash water should not contain impurities of stool, otherwise the procedure is repeated until the indicated effect. Controlling the nature of the stool by the patient himself is an extremely important preparation moment!

How is X-ray examination of the colon (irrigoscopy) carried out?

As a contrast agent, use a suspension of barium sulphate (400 grams of powder per 1000 ml of water). Preheated to body temperature, the barium suspension is administered with an enema.

All medications that the patient uses constantly, especially antihypertensive and cardiac drugs, must be taken in accordance with the prescription of the doctor.

How is the preparation of patients for X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum?

 X-ray of esophagus, stomach and duodenum

Aim: to achieve lack of content in the cavity of the organs during examination.

Patients with normal bowel function do not require any special preparation for radiographic examination of the stomach. The night before, light supper, on the day of the study, on an empty stomach with a towel, go to a radiology examination.

With pathology of the stomach and intestine: 2-3 days before the examination - products that promote gas formation (black bread, vegetables, fruits, legumes, milk, etc.) are excluded from the diet. On the eve of a radiographic examination of the stomach and duodenum, a light supper is recommended. 14 hours before the examination, the patient stops eating. On the day of the examination, the patient should not eat, drink or smoke. 

If there is a large amount of liquid, mucus, food debris in the stomach (for example, with an organic narrowing of the stomach outlet), the stomach should be washed 2-3 hours before the test.

With  meteorism and persistent constipation, a cleansing enema with warm water is recommended 1.5-2 hours before the examination

How is X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum carried out?

As a contrast agent in the X-ray examination of the stomach and duodenum, a suspension of barium sulfate is used, which is prepared at a rate of 100 g. powder to 80 ml of water.

 How is the patient prepared for X-ray examination of the small (ileum) gut?

Enteroography

Aim: to achieve lack of content in the cavity of the organs.

Preparation of the patient

12 hours before the examination, exclude the intake of food, put cleansing enemas the night before and in the morning 2-3 hours before the examination.

How is X-ray examination of the small intestine (enterography) carried out?

A sorbitol-barium suspension is prepared: 20-25 grams of food sorbitol is dissolved in 50 ml of hot water,  add 50 ml of cold water and 100 g of barium sulphate, all this is mixed with a mixer for 4-5 minutes. Then give the patient this mixture to drink.

The patient should come to the examination on an empty stomach with a towel.

 

THE ORDER OF EXAMINATION OF PATIENTS IN THE ENDOSCOPIC DEPARTMENT

 Preparation for esophagogastroduodenofibroscopy: 

  • esophagastroduodenofibroscopy
    is held on an empty stomach, on the eve of the examination - a light dinner at 18:00 - 19:00, if the examination is the afternoon, an early light breakfast is allowed at 7:00 - 8:00. Have a towel with you.

Preparation for the colonoscopy is necessary: on the eve of the examination - 1 day hunger or 2 days slag-free diet (exclude vegetables, fruits, dairy products, etc.); the day before the examination - LAST meal at 14:00 (light lunch); on the day of the examination - in the morning it is necessary to be on an empty stomach, the morning toilet of the oral cavity (tooth cleaning), the intake of liquid (water, clear juices without pulp, sweet tea) and the medications you need in the form of tablets, capsules or pills. When conducting research under anesthesia - absolute hunger!

  • colonoscopy (1st method)
    Buy a Fortrans (4 packages in one pack). Each package should be dissolved in 1 liter of water, drink 4 liters of solution for 4 hours (from 15:00 to 19:00), taking one glass every 15 minutes. If the examination is conducted after 15:00, take 2 liters of solution on the eve of the examination from 17:00 to 19:00 and 2 liters - on the day of the examination from 7:00 to 9:00, but no later than 3 hours before the examination. You should have a bedsheet.
  • colonoscopy (2nd method)
    At 16:00 drink 50 g of castor oil. At 19:00 and 22:00, do a cleansing enema (2.0 - 2.5 liters of room temperature water). Not later than 3 hours before the examination, again to make cleansing enemas (one, two or more) to clean water. In preparation for drinking water, do not eat.

 THE ORDER OF EXAMINATION OF PATIENTS IN A CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY

The blood test for all examinations:

  • In the morning, on an empty stomach, preferably after a 12-hour fasting.
  • For 1-2 days, give up spicy, fatty foods and alcohol, for 1 hour before you shouldn’t smoking, for 30 minutes exclude physical activity.
  • It is necessary to give blood before the beginning of taking medications (for example, antibacterial and chemotherapeutic) or not earlier than 10 to 14 days after their withdrawal. The only exception is when they want to investigate the concentration of medications in the blood (for example, valproic acid, anticonvulsants). When taking medications, be sure to inform the medical staff when issuing a referral for the examination.
  • Do not give blood after radiography, physiotherapy and diagnostic procedures
  • Blood for insulin is taken before the introduction of insulin preparations. Also, any stresses should be eliminated.

When give blood for the test of thyroid hormones, remember that:

  • a few days before the test excludes the use of preparations containing iodine and iodine-containing products (fish, seafood, sea kale, iodized salt),
  • On the eve of the test, it is necessary to exclude physical activity, avoid stress,
  • the collection of blood should be carried out before radiocontrast examinations,
  • at research in dynamics it is recommended to give blood on test at the same time of day,
  • the analysis on a thyreotropic hormone hand over till 10:00 mornings as its maintenance in a blood is subject to daily fluctuations,
  • repeated tests of the thyreotropic hormone  level should be carried out not earlier than 6 weeks after the dose or type of drug is changed.

The test of reproductive hormones in women is strictly taking into account the menstrual cycle, so when you give blood, you need to specify the phase of the cycle:

  • Estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, free testosterone is examined on the 6th-7th day of the menstrual cycle, unless other dates are specified by the treating physician. On the eve of the test, it is necessary to exclude physical activities (sports training) and smoking.
  • Analysis for progesterone - performed on the 22-23 day of the menstrual cycle, unless other dates are specified by the treating doctor.

Blood on oncomarkers can be taken after 4 hours of fasting (low-fat meal). Remember, that: 

  • The test on CA15-3 is done before or not earlier than 2 weeks after biopsy, surgery and mammary gland massage.
  • PSA test should be performed before or no earlier than 6-7 days after prostate biopsy, massage or digital rectal examination of the prostate, transrectal ultrasound, laser therapy, ergometry, cysto- and colonoscopy and after any other mechanical effects on the prostate. An increase in PSA levels after biopsy and other manipulations on the prostate gland can occur up to 1 month. To avoid errors, the determination of free and total PSA is desirable to be done by one method in one laboratory.

  A blood test for infections - possible after 4-5 hours after the last meal.

  Before give blood for viral hepatitis 2 days before the test, it is desirable to exclude  citrus fruits, orange fruits and vegetables.

  The blood test for the presence of antibodies of IgM class to infectious agents should be performed no earlier than 5-7 days after the disease, and antibodies of classes IgG, IgA not earlier than 10-14 days

The results of tests on the presence of infections depend on the period of infection and the state of the immune system, so a negative result does not completely exclude infection.

  Examination of the material from the urogenital tract.

 For analysis take a smear from the urethra - men; from the cervix, vaginal vault, urethra -  women.

  Recommendations:

  • do not urinate for two hours before sampling the biomaterial;
  • for two days to refuse from sexual contacts, including using a condom;
  • on the day of the analysis, do not use the toilet of the genital organs with the use of disinfectants (soap, gel);
  • 3 days before the test, refuse syringing, exclude the introduction of vaginal suppositories, if it is included in the course of treatment -  consult with the doctor.
  • The analysis is given before the beginning of antibacterial therapy or three weeks after the end of treatment
  • after questionable sexual contact, at least 3 weeks must pass before the analysis is given;
  • during menstruation, the analisys is not conducted

Clinical urine tests

  • To collect urine it is better to use a special container, which is purchased at the pharmacy. This will avoid errors associated with the cleanliness of dishes.
  • On the eve of the test, it is recommended not to eat vegetables and fruits that can change the color of urine (beets, carrots, etc.), do not take diuretics. Abstain from physical activity, from drinking alcohol. You can not have sexual contacts less than 12 hours before the analysis.
  • Before collecting urine, you must make a thorough hygienic toilet of the genitals. Women are not recommended to take urine tests during menstruation.
  • The whole morning dose of urine is collected for the test, and the first few milliliters of urine should be drained by, and everything else in the container, container must be perfectly clean and dry. For the test, pour into the container 50-100 ml of urine.
  • It is desirable to deliver the sample within 1 hour to the laboratory. Long-term storage of urine leads to a change in its physical properties,  multiplication of bacteria and the destruction of sediment elements.

  Nechiporenko test.

  For this analysis, after preparation as described above, the average portion of urine is 100-150 ml (the beginning of urination in the toilet, then in a specially prepared container, the last portion - in the toilet).

  Zimnitsky test.

  Collect urine for 24 hours in the usual drinking regime (1.5-2 liters per day), taking into account the amount of liquids drunk per day.

  At 6 o'clock in the morning to release the bladder (this portion of urine pour).

  Every 3 hours during the day, collect urine in separate containers, on which you should indicate the time of collection and the number of portions.

  Total 8:

1st  portion — from 6:00 to 9:00 morning,

2nd portion – from 9:00 to 12:00,

3rd portion – from 12:00 to 15:00,

4th portion – from 15:00 to 18:00,

5th portion – from 18:00 to 21:00,

6th portion – from 21:00 to 24:00,

7th portion – from 24:00 to 3:00,

8th portion – from 3:00 to 6:00 o’clock.

  All the collected amount of urine in 8 containers should to be delivered to the laboratory.

  24-hours urine collection

  You must follow the rules:

  • The first morning portion of urine is removed.
  • All subsequent portions of urine allocated during the day, night and morning portion of the next day are collected in one container, which is stored in the refrigerator (+4 ... + 8 ° С) during the whole time
  • After the collection of urine is completed, the contents of the container should be accurately measured, be sure to mix and immediately pour into a small container for test
  • Bring this container to the laboratory
  • On a referral it is necessary to specify daily volume of urine (diuresis) in milliliters, for example: "Diuresis 1250 ml"

 THE ORDER OF THE EXAMINATION OF PATIENTS IN THE ISOTOPIC LABORATORY

You should have with you: necessarily referral (or recommendation) with the seal and signature of the doctor who sent you to the examination and other methods of examination (ultrasound, CT, MRI, etc.)

  Contra-indications: pregnancy, breast-feeding

  Before the examination directly on the gamma camera, you must have: put the outer clothing in the wardrobe and put the shoe covers, on the metal objects should be remove, the mobile phone remove from the pockets, remove the belt (if there is a metal buckle).

  After the introduction of the radiopharmaceutical, you must be in the patients' waiting room!

  After passing the examination during the day: recommended abundant drinking (juices with pulp, milk or kefir) do not conduct other procedures and do not visit other specialists of the diagnostic center not to communicate closely with young children.

  Preparation

  If you have following examination:

  • Dynamic nephroscintigraphy (examination of kidney function). Preparation: eat and drink for 30-40 minutes 2 cups of liquid. The duration of the examination is 30-40 minutes on average.
  • Static kidney scintigraphy. Preparation: not required. Have a bed sheet with you. The duration of the examination is 1.5-2 hours on average.
  • Dynamic scintigraphy of the hepatobiliary system (examination of liver function). It is carried out on an empty stomach! Have 200 ml of milk cream of 10% -fatness + a glass, + a straw (a cocktail stick), and also a bed sheet. The duration of the examination is an average of 1.5 hours.
  • Static liver scintigraphy. Preparation: not required. Have a bed sheet with you. The examination takes 40 minutes. - 1 hour.
  • Osteoscintigraphy (examination of bones). Preparation: not required. Have a bed sheet with you. Duration of the examination: 3-4 hours.
  • Thyroid scintigraphy. Preparation: for 2 weeks  cancel medicine containing iodine, thyroid hormones, thyreostatic drugs. Have a bed sheet with you. The examination takes 40 minutes. - 1 hour.
  • Scintigraphy of parathyroid glands. Preparation: for 2 weeks  cancel medicine containing iodine, thyroid hormones, thyreostatic drugs. Have a bed sheet with you. The duration of the examination is about 2 hours on average.
  • Scintigraphy of the heart (at rest, with exercise (with dipyridomole)). Preparation: overnight betta-blockers, nitrates, Ca antagonists, tea, coffee are canceled. It is carried out on an empty stomach, duration - 2 days.

 

INFORMATION ABOUT PREPARATION FOR BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION:

  1. Secretion from throat and nose - in the morning on an empty stomach (without brushing teeth) or 3 hours after eating..
  2. Sputum - sputum, morning portion, collected in a sterile jar, after cleaning your teeth and rinsing your mouth with boiled water.
  3. .Examination of feces for dysbacteriosis: 1-3 days before taking the sample, the patient should be on a diet that excludes the intake of foods that enhance the processes of fermentation in the intestines, as well as alcohol, antimicrobial drugs, etc.

Feces are collected immediately after defecation, eliminating the possibility of contamination by placing a portion of feces in a sterile vial. The volume of excreta for research on intestinal dysbacteriosis should be 1/3 of a 20 ml vial (a tablespoon). If pathological impurities (mucus, flakes, pus) are present in the excrements, they should be included in the test sample.

The material is delivered to the laboratory in the shortest time (no more than 2 hours from the moment of sampling).

  1. Separated urino-genital organs are selected by the gynecologist or urologist of the Center.
  2. Urine - is the morning average portion of freely released urine in sterile dishes (after a thorough toilet of the external genitalia - twice washing with soap).
  3. Breast milk test for sterility

Before decanting the milk, the woman should wash her hands with soap, carefully work the nipples and the nasal region of the mammary glands with separate cotton swabs moistened with 70 spirits (each gland is treated with a separate tampon).

Milk from the right and left mammary glands is collected in a separate bowl. The first 5-10ml. pumped milk is not get into examination. The next 3-5ml. are pumped in sterile bottles, which are closed with sterile stoppers and delivered to the laboratory no later than 2 hours after the fence.

  1. Separated eyes, ears - a sampling of a material is made by the oculist and the otolaryngologist of the Center.

 

Information on preparing for ultraviolet blood irradiation

For ultraviolet blood irradiation, patients need to have:

  • clinical blood analysis - up to 10 days;
  • total protein level in biochemical analysis - up to 1 month;
  • test results for viral hepatitis, HIV, syphilis - up to 6 months old;
  • coagulogram;
  • electrocardiogram.
 

Information about preparation for the respiratory hydrogen test (test on the device Laktofan)

The test is performed on an empty stomach

To prevent false negative results, it is forbidden to take a medicine for 4 weeks before the test:

  • Antibiotics (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, etc.), probiotics (enterol, linex, etc.) or bismuth preparations (de-nol, etc.)
  • Undergo a colonoscopy, irrigoscopy, enterography, or take a bowel cleansing drug (fortrans, foret)
 

Within 1 week prior to the test, it is necessary to exclude:

  • Intake of laxatives, including lactulose
 

Within 1 day prior to the test:

  • It is recommended to use only the following products: white bread, white rice, boiled potatoes, stewed or baked chicken, fish or meat, water, black coffee, only salt is allowed as spices.
  • Alcohol is prohibited
  • Are stricly prohibited: beans, pasta, cereals, vegetables and fruits, bran, muesli, carbonated drinks, butter and margarine, milk products.
 

Within 14 hours prior to the test:

  • It is forbidden to take food and drinks (the test is conducted after a 14-hour fast, if necessary, you can drink drinking water)
 

On the day of the test, before it begins:

  • It is forbidden to eat food (including candy or peppermint tablets), drink, smoke and use chewing gum
  • 2-3 hours before the test, you need to brush your teeth and rinse well your mouth with water
  • It is forbidden to use perfume, toilet water (use of deodorant is allowed), aftershave, lipstick
  • If you are constantly taking medicines (blood pressure, coronary heart disease, hormonal drugs), you can take the usual dose with a drink of drinking water, except for VITAMINS, LAXATIVE, ANTIBIOTICS.
 
 Substance  Type of the test  Duration of the test (min.)
Lactose  Suction failure  180
Fructose  Suction failure  180
Glucose  Excessive bacterial growth  120
Lactulose  Excessive bacterial growth  120

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